Carthaginian Generals > Hanno (Garrison Commander)

Hanno (Garrison Commander)

Punic Wars - Punic Wars Decoration

Background

Hanno was the name of the Carthaginian general that was in command of the garrison at Messana. He was involved in the events that preceded and began the First Punic War.

In 265 BC the Mamertines who were occupying Messana were being threatened by Hiero II of Syracuse. Consequently, they sent appeals for assistance to Rome and Carthage.[1] The Carthaginians were first to respond dispatching a small force commanded by Hanno to occupy the citadel of Messana and patrol the strait of Messina.[2] The Roman consul Appius Claudius Caudex desiring personal glory persuaded the Roman People with promises of profit to vote in favour of intervening in Messana.[3] Gaius Claudius, a military tribune was sent in advance by the consul Appius Claudius Caudex with a few ships to Rhegium, a city allied to the Romans on the opposite side of the strait on the Italian mainland.[4] Gaius Claudius commenced negotiations with Hanno but negotiations must have broken down and Gaius unsuccessfully tried to force passage across the strait in the process losing some triremes to the Carthaginians who were skillful sailors.[2] Hanno understanding the gravity of the situation and not wanting to be blamed for starting a war with the Romans, as a gesture returned the captured vessels to the Romans and urged them to opt for peace.[5] Gaius Claudius, it would seem, ignored the gesture and tried again to cross the strait to Messana; this time successfully. The Mamertines urged Hanno to descend from the citadel and parley with the Romans. Hanno reluctantly agreed but again the talks failed. The Romans seized Hanno and imprisoned him. Hanno was thus compelled to withdraw the Carthaginian garrison from Messana.[5] These events triggered the beginning of the First Punic War.

For retreating from the engagement, Hanno would be crucified by his own men. Other accounts say he was killed along with other Carthaginian generals back in Carthage.

The Carthaginians subsequently crucified Hanno for what was regarded as cowardice and lack of judgement in leaving the citadel of Messana.[6]

Bibliography

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall Of Carthage, Page 67.

Ioannes Zonaras, An Epitome Of The Lost Books Of Dio, 11.8

Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall Of Carthage, Page 71

Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall Of Carthage, Page 72

Ioannes Zonaras, An Epitome Of The Lost Books Of Dio, 11.9

Polybius, The Histories, 1:11.5