Third Punic War Battles > Battle of Lake Tunis

Battle of Lake Tunis

Punic Wars - Punic Wars DecorationBattle of Lake Tunis Part of the Third Punic War Date July 149 BC Location Lake of Tunis, Tunisia Result Carthaginian victory Belligerents Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic Carthage standard.svg Carthage Commanders and leaders Spqrstone.jpg Lucius Marcius Censorius Spqrstone.jpg Manius Manilius Spqrstone.jpg Scipio Aemilianus Carthage standard.svg Himilco Phameas Strength over 6000 men unknown Casualties and losses at least 500 men most of the Roman fleet unknown (light)

Background

The Battle of Lake Tunis was a naval battle of the Third Punic War that was fought between the Carthaginians and the Roman Republic in 149 BC. The Romans sent two consuls, Manius Manilus and Lucius Marcius Censorinus who landed at two separate points around the city of Carthage. Manilius established his camp on the isthmus leading to Carthage facing the citadel of Byrsa, while Censorinus established his across from the western wall of Carthage, on Lake Tunis.

The Roman siege plan was to have Manilius fill in the ditch on the southern wall and then scale them and siege the city. On the western wall siege ladders would be raised as well was from the decks of Roman ships. Encamped on the other side of Lake Tunis was the Carthaginian general named Hasdrubal the Boetharch. Worried about a surprise attack from the Carthaginians, the Romans decided to fortify their military encampments with additional defenses. (Appian, 97)

Manilius planned to fill the ditch facing the southern wall and from there scale it, while Censorinus intended to raise ladders to the western wall from the ground and the decks of the ships. Two initial assaults were enacted, with the consuls thinking the Carthaginians were without arms, but they were surprised to find the citizens re-armed and were subsequently repelled on both attempts. Fearing the approach of Hasdrubal the Boetharch, who was encamped on the other side of Lake Tunis, both consuls fortified their camps.[Appian 1]

Battle

After fortifying his camp, Censorinus dispatched his men to gather timber from the far side of Lake Tunis, intending to build new siege engines. The Carthaginian cavalry commander Himilco Phameas, seizing on this opportunity, raided the workers as they gathered timber, resulting in a loss of 500 men and a great deal of tools for constructing siege works. Nevertheless, Censorinus acquired sufficient timber to create siege engines and ladders, and he and Manilius launched another attack on the city in concert, which was again repulsed.[Appian 2] Manilius decided against launching another assault on the walls from the isthmus, but Censorinus, having filled up parts of the lake to provide room, constructed two battering rams, one for his fleet and another supported by 6000 infantry. In the subsequent assault on the walls from Lake Tunis, Censorinus' troops managed to breach Carthage's wall before being driven off by the defenders, who hastily began repairing the breach. Fearing a second assault, the Carthaginians sallied from the unrepaired wall that evening and assaulted the camp on Lake Tunis, torching a great deal of the Roman siege engines.[Appian 3] The next day, the Roman troops attempted to break through the gap in the wall, though Scipio Aemilianus, then serving as military tribune under Censorinus refused to enter and held his troops in reserve, instead spacing them at regular intervals along the wall. While Aemilianus' troops avoided the battle, the other troops were met by staunch resistance from the Carthaginians fighting back in the gap, and the Roman troops suffered heavy casualties as the defenders attacked from the broken wall.[Appian 4]

Aftermath

Around 27 July - at the appearance of Sirius on the horizon at sunrise - Censorinus faced an epidemic in his ranks, having kept his troops on stagnant water with poor airflow from the sea over Carthage's walls. Accordingly, Censorinus relocated his camp to a site on the shore of the sea. The Carthaginians, noting the movement of the Roman fleet, constructed fire ships in their harbour and launched them along the coastline when the Roman fleet came into view. The resulting fire attack destroyed most of the Roman fleet, and substantially set back the Roman assault. Shortly afterwards, Censorinus returned to Rome to conduct elections, and the attacks on Manilius increased in intensity.[Appian 5]

Aftermath

Third Punic War

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Bibliography

Primary Sources

Appian of Alexandria, Roman History, "Punica"

Appian, Punica 97

Appian, Punica 97

Appian, Punica 98

Appian, Punica 98

Appian, Punica 99

Secondary Sources